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Biodynamic Research References

Biodynamic Research > Research References

This page provides a compilation of resources related to biodynamic research. To suggest additions, please contact Sarah Weber (Biodynamic Research Program Coordinator) at sarah@biodynamics.com or 262-649-9212 x10.

  1. Research Articles
  2. Biodynamics journal — research related content
  3. Books 
  4. Other Resources


Research Articles

The following list illustrates the range of biodynamic research conducted worldwide. Links are provided to articles that are available online. The majority of articles listed are from the past twenty years. References from the earlier literature can be found in the bibliography of Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture (Creeger-Gardner translation, Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening Association, 1993).

Alfӧldi, Th., P. Mäder, J.M. Besson and U. Niggli. 1995. DOC-trial: Long-term effects of bio-dynamic, bio-organic and conventional farming systems on soil conditions, yield and product quality. Darmstadt.

Arunkumar, J. 2011. Utilization of alternative herbs and materials for the production of biodynamic manures and their efficacy on growth of selected plants. Ph.D. thesis. University of Madras. 

Bachinger, J. 1996.  The effects of different types of fertilization (mineral, organic, biodynamic) on the temporal dynamics and spacial distribution of chemical and microbiological parameters of C and N dynamics in the soil and also of crop and root growth of winter rye.  (German Language) Institute for Biodynamic Research, Research Report Volume 7, 166 pp., Darmstadt, Germany, 1996.

Barnes, H. 1991. Rudolf Steiner on the Urgent Need for Research Arising from Anthroposophy. Newsletter of the Anthroposophical Society in America. Spring 1991. 

Baumgartner, S.M., D. Shah, P. Heusser and A. Thurneysen. 2000. Homeopathic dilutions: is there a potential for application in organic plant production? IFOAM 2000 – The World Grows Organic, T. Alfӧldli, W. Lockeretz and U. Niggli, Eds. Proceedings 13th IFOAM Scientific Conference. Zurich: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2000, pp. 97-100. 

Bloksma, J. et al.. 2007. A new quality concept based on life processes. Louis Bolk Institute. Driebergen, the Netherlands. In: Handbook of organic food safety and quality. 

Bloksma, J. and M. Huber. 2002. Life processes in crops – On Growth & Differentiation. Louis Bolk Institute. 

Busscher, N. et al. 2010. Standardization of the Biocrystallization Method for Carrot Samples. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 27:1-23.

Busscher, N, J. Kahl and A. Ploeger. 2011. The bio-crystallization method as a new indicator for organic food-quality. Abstract.  First Food Quality and Health conference 2011, Praque, Czech Republic. 

Carpenter-Boggs, L., A.C. Kennedy, J.P. Reganold. 2000. Organic and biodynamic management: effects on soil biology. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:1651-1659. 

Carpenter-Boggs, L., J.P. Reganold, A.C. Kennedy. 2000. Effects of biodynamic preparations on compost development. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 17:313-328. 

Carpenter-Boggs, L., J.P. Reganold, A.C. Kennedy. 2000. Biodynamic preparations: short-term effects on crops, soils, and weed populations. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 15:96-104.

Fritz, J, P. Meyer-Glitza, A. Weidringer, U. Koepke, C. Schueler.  1997.  Basic research on the crop growth substance horn-silica.  (German Language) Pp. 231-237. In: Beitraege zur 4. Wissenschaftstagung zum Oekologischen Landbau.  3-4 March, 1997.  Rheinischen Friedrich Wilhelms Universitaet, Bonn, Germany.  Schriftenreihe Institute fuer Organischen Landbaue. Pub. Dr. Koester, Berlin.

Forschungsring fur biologische-dynamische Wirtschaftweise e.V. 2004.  Food Quality Research. The Monastery Study. How does food quality affect body, soul and spirit? Published in English by Biodynamic Agricultural Association, UK. 

Goldstein, W. A. 1986.  Alternative crops, rotations, and management systems for the Palouse.  Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Agronomy and Soils, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.  333 pp.

Goldstein, W.A. 2000.  The effect of farming systems on the relationship of corn root growth to grain yields.  American Journal of Alternative Agriculture.  15, 101-109.

Goldstein, W.A. and H. H. Koepf.  1982.  A contribution to the development of tests for biodynamic preparations. Elemente der Naturwissenschaft.  36:41-53.

Goldstein, W.A and W. Barber.  2005.  Yield and Root Growth in a Long-Term trial with Biodynamic Preparations.  5 pp.  the proceedings of the International Society for Organic Farming Research (ISOFAR), Scientific Conference in cooperation with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) 21 – 23 September 2005, in Adelaide, South Australia.

Goldstein, W.A. and C. Cambardella. 2008 Organic maize, organic matter management, root health, and nitrogen. pp. 64-80 In: U. Koepke and S.M. Sohn Ed. ISOFAR International Conference on Soil Fertility Proceedings.  12-14 March 2008. Dankook University, Korea.

Granstedt, A. and L. Kjellenberg. 1997. Long-Term Field Experiment in Sweden: Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Soil Fertility and Crop Quality. In Proceedings of an International Conference in Boston, Tufts University, Agricultural Production and Nutrition, Massachusetts March 19-21, 1997. 

Granstedt, A. and L. Kjellenberg. 2011. Skilleby Long Term Field Trial 1991-2010. Final Report June 2011. Biodynamic Research Institute. Jarna, Sweden. 

Huber, M. et al. 2010. Standardization and Validation of the Visual Evaluation of Biocrystallizations. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 27:25-40.

Hummel, R. E. 1991. Is the Copper Chloride Crystallization Method a Test for Detecting Formative Forces in Living Materials? Newsletter of the Society for the Evolution of Science 7(2): 29-42, with three plates.

Kjellenberg, L. and A. Granstedt. 2005. The K-trial. A 33-year study of the connections between manuring, soils and crops. Biodynamic Research Institute, Sweden. 

Kollerstrom, N., Staudenmaier, G. 2001. Evidence for Lunar-Sidereal Rhythms in Crop Yield: A Review. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 19:247-259. 

Mäder, P., A. Fliessbach, D. Dubois, L. Gunst, P. Fried and U. Niggli. 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694−1697. 

Mäder, P. et al. 1993. Effect of three farming systems (bio-dynamic, bio-organic, conventional) on yield and quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta L.) in a seven year crop rotation. Acta Horticulturae, 339, 11 –3.

Menaka, M., C. Venkatasubramanian and K. Perumal. 2005. A comparative study on the acceptability of selected organic, biodynamic and conventional foods. Indian Journal of Human Science Vol: 1 (1), 68-76.

Menaka, M., C. Venkatasubramanian and K.Perumal. 2005. A comparative study on nutritional quality of selected organic, biodynamic and conventional foods. Indian Journal of Human Science Vol: 1 (2), 96-101.

Moodie, M. 2011. Biodynamic Research in the UK

Neelima Garg, R.A. Ram and R.K. Pathak. Research note: Effect of Stirring on Microbial Population of BD 500. Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow, U.P -226022, India.

Nessenius, Eva S. 2012. Evolution and Geological Planet Formation - the biogenic origin of the early continents of the earth. Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany. September 2012.

Paull, J. 2011a. Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938. Journal of Organic Systems, 6 (1), pp. 27-41.

Paull, J. 2011b. Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21 (1), pp. 64-70. 

Perumal, K. and T. M. Vatsala 2002. Utilisation of local alternative materials in cow horn manure (BD 500): A case study on biodynamic vegetable cultivation. Journal of Biodynamic Agriculture - Australia, 52:16-21. 

Perumal, K., Praveena, V., Stalin, V and Janarthanan, B. 2006. Assessment of selected organic manures and plant growth hormones and their impact on the growth attributes of Alium cepa Lin. Current Science (Communicated). 

Perumal, K., V. Stalin and B. Janarthanan. Cumulative effect of selected organic - biodynamic manures on growth of Allium cepa Lin. Abstract.

Perumal, K., S. Mohanraj and T.M.Vatsala. 2000. Studies on microbial diversity in biodynamic preparations. Biodyne 1: 1, 3.

Perumal, K., K. Chakraparthy and T. M. Vatsala. 2003. Influence of nutrient management on quality and yield of carrot (Daucus carota, L.,). Journal of Soil and Crops, 13 (2) 204-210).

Raupp, J. and U.J. König. 1996. Biodynamic preparations cause opposite yield effects depending upon yield levels. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 13:175–188.

Reeve, J.R., L. Carpenter-Boggs, H. Sehmsdorf. 2011. Sustainable agriculture: A case study of a small Lopez Island Farm. Agricultural Systems 104:572-579. 

Reeve, J.R., L. Carpenter-Boggs, J.P. Reganold, A.L. York, W.F. Brinton. 2010. Influence of biodynamic preparations on compost development and resultant compost extracts on wheat seedling growth. Bioresource Technology 101:5658-5666.

Reeve, J.R., L. Carpenter-Boggs, J.P. Reganold, A.L. York, G. McGourty, L.P. McCloskey. 2005. Soil and Winegrape Quality in Biodynamically and Organically Managed Vineyards.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 56:4 (367-376).

Reganold, J.P. 1995. Soil quality and profitability of biodynamic and conventional farming systems: A review. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture. 10:36–45. Madison, WI. Reganold, J.P.

Reganold et al. 1993. Soil quality and financial performance of biodynamic and conventional farms in New Zealand. Science, 260 (1993), pp. 344–349.

Research and Development Group of the Bio Dynamic Farming and Gardening Association in New Zealand. 2004. A Review of New Zealand and International Organic Land Management Research.

Setati, M.E., D. Jacobson, U-C. Andong, F. Bauer. 2012. The Vineyard Yeast Microbiome, a Mixed Model Microbial Map. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52609. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052609 

Soil Association. 2001. Organic farming, food quality and human health. A review of the evidence.

Spaccini, R., P. Mazzei, A. Squartini, M. Giannattasio and A. Piccolo. 2012. Molecular properties of a fermented manure preparation used as a field spray in biodynamic agriculture. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19:4214–4225.

Stearn, W.C. 1976.  Effectiveness of two biodynamic preparations on higher plants and possible mechanisms for the observed response. M.Sc. Thesis. Dept. of Agronomy.  Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 122 pp. 

Turinek, M., S. Grobelnik-Mlakar, M. Bavec,  and F. Bavec. 2009. Biodynamic agriculture research progress and priorities. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24:146–154.

Zaller, J.G. and U. Köpke. 2004. Effects of traditional and biodynamic farmyard manure amendments on yields, soil chemical, biochemical and biological properties in a long-term field experiment. Biology and Fertility of Soils 40:222–229.



Biodynamics Journal – Research Related Content

A wide array of research related articles have been featured in the Biodynamics journal since its inaugural issue in 1941, a selection of which are listed below. Insights from the earliest writings are still relevant today.

Brinton, Jr., W.M. 1983. Report on testing bio-dynamic preparations 500 & 507. Biodynamics 148:11–24.

Brinton, W.F. 1986. Investigations Concerning Preparation 500 (Part II). Biodynamics 157:44–52.

Coderey, P. 2009. Sensitive Crystallizations. Biodynamics. Fall 2009. 270:36-37.

Eldridge, M., B. Kirchoff and S. Richter. 2005. An experimental test of the biodynamic plant peppers. Biodynamics. Fall 2005. 254:30–32

Eldridge, M., B. Kirchoff and S. Richter. 2006. A further test of the biodynamic plant peppers. Biodynamics. Winter 2006. 255: 37–40.

Endelman, J.  2010.  The Valerian Preparation: Correlating Sensory Experience and Physicochemical Properties. Biodynamics. Spring 2010. 271:28-34.

Gardner, M. 2002. The Significance of Fine Grinding: A Response to Harvey Lisle. Biodynamics. Winter 2002-2003. 243-244:3-13.

Goldstein, W. 1979. A Report on Previous Work Done with the Bio-Dynamic Herbal Preparations. Biodynamics. Winter 1979. 129: 1-10.

Goldstein, W.A. 1981. Potato quality. Biodynamics. Fall 1981. 140: 3-28.

Goldstein, W.A. 1982. The nature and value of field experiments. Biodynamics. 144:24-28.

Goldstein, W. 2000. Experimental Proof for the Effects of Biodynamic Preparations. Biodynamics. September/October 2000. 231: 6-13

Ingham, E. 2004. The Microbiology of Biodynamic Preparations. Biodynamics. Winter 2004. 247: 38-41.

Koepf, H.H., Pettersson, B.D., Schaumann, W. 1975. Research on Quality.  Biodynamics. Spring 1975. 114:7-16.

Mauger, M. 2007. Safe Food From Contaminated Soil? - Biodynamic Agricultural Method Shows Successful Field Research. Biodynamics. Winter 2007 259: 37-41.

Pfeiffer. E.E. 1954. Seven Years of Soil Survey on a Biodynamic Farm. Biodynamics. Summer 1954. 34: 2-20.

Pfeiffer, E.E. 1960. Biochemical Research Laboratory Annual Report. Biodynamics. Summer 1960. 55: 5-15.

Pfeiffer, E.E. 1961. Comparative Soil Tests 1951-1961 of a Bio-Dynamic Farm. Biodynamics. Fall 1961. 60: 1-12.

Reeve, J. 2008. Effects of the Preparations on a Biodynamic Vineyard. Biodynamics. Summer 2008. 265:28-29.

Schaumann, W. 1983. Goals of Quality Research. Biodynamics. Summer 1983. 147: 12-21.

Sehmsdorf, H. 2008. On-Farm Research: Biodynamic Forage Production on S&S Homestead Farm. Analysis of effects of biodynamic preparations on soil pH. Biodynamics. Summer 2008. 265:22-27.

Spiess, H. 2000: Lunar rhythms and plants. Biodynamics. 229: 19-22. 



This is a brief list of books related to biodynamic research.  For additional titles see SteinerBooks. You can help support the Biodynamic Association by visiting SteinerBooks through links on our site. A percentage of all sales from customers who reach SteinerBooks through our site will go to help support our work. 

Koepf, H.H., Shouldice, R., and W. Goldstein.  1989.  The Biodynamic Farm: Agriculture in the Service of the Earth and Humanity.  Anthroposophic Press. Hudson, NY.  245 pp.

Koepf, H. 1993. Research in Biodynamic Agriculture: Methods and Results. Bio-Dynamic Farming & Gardening Association. (Included in Koepf's Practical Biodynamics: Soil, Compost, Sprays, and Food Quality.)

Kolisko, E. and L. Kolisko. 1978. Agriculture of Tomorrow. 2nd edition. Bournemouth, U.K. Kolisko Archive Publications.

Pfeiffer, E. 2008. Soil Fertility - Renewal and Preservation. Lanthorn Press.

Schwenk, T. 1988. The Basis of Potentization Research. 

Seamon, D. and A. Zajonc (eds.). 1998. Goethe’s Way of Science: A Phenomenology of Nature.

Steiner, R. 1910. Occult Science: An Outline. Translated by George and Mary Adams. Rudolf Steiner Press 2005.

Steiner, R. 1996. The Boundaries of Natural Science. Eight Lectures. 1920. Dornach. Foreword by Saul Bellow.

Steiner, R.  1993. Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture. A Course of Lectures. 1924. Translated by C.E. Creeger and M.Gardner. Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening Association. Kimberton, Pennsylvania.

Adonis Press

Adonis Press is committed to publishing and distributing books on phenomenological science. Founded in 1941, the press is now a branch of the Hawthorne Valley Association, New York.


Other Resources

Additional biodynamic research related references can be found at the following websites. A number the English papers from these pages are listed in the Research Articles section above.

Bio-Dynamic Association of India – Articles and Research page

Biodynamic Agriculture Association of UK – Research page

Biodynamic Research Association of Denmark – Publications page

A list of brochures, scientific papers etc., developed by the association.  Some are available in English.


An information and communication network for research on biodynamic agriculture. 

Considera - Literature pages

Google Scholar

Though not specific to biodynamics, this site provides a search of scholarly literature across many disciplines and sources, including theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites. 

Institute for Biodynamic Research – Publications page

Note - most text is in German.

Louis Bolk Institute – Publications page

Search more than 1,725 publications (almost 600 in English) from institute staff members. Search results are grouped by publication type: scientific publications, books and reports, and trade journal articles. Most of the publications are available in PDF, and can be downloaded directly from the website.

Organic Eprints

An international open access archive for papers and projects related to research in organic food and farming. The archive contains full-text papers in electronic form together with bibliographic information, abstracts and other metadata. It also offers information on organisations, projects and facilities in the context of organic farming research.


Research Institutes and Other Organizations >