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TitleBiodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsPaull, J
JournalJournal of Organic Systems
Start Page27
Keywordsagricultural course, agriculture course, bio-dynamic agriculture, biodynamic farming, biodynamic gardening, biodynamics, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Kobierzyce, organic agriculture, Poland, Rudolf Steiner

In the last year of his life, the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner challenged the direction and practice of contemporary agriculture. This was an early response to the proliferation of chemical agriculture. Steiner laid the foundation for an alternative agriculture, one that would ‘heal the earth’, in the agriculture course1 , a series of eight lectures at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924. Steiner set in train a process that led to the development, articulation, and naming of biodynamic agriculture, culminating in the publication of BioDynamic Farming and Gardening by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer in 1938.